Friday, August 21, 2020

Australian Consumer Law for Viagogo Samples †

Question: Why the ACCC thinks about that Viagogo has penetrated the ACL? Answer: The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) has taken the Switzerland based organization Viagogo to the Federal Court as in excess of 400 customer grumblings had been propelled against the organization in just a year. The ACCC have asserted that the organization has disregarded the arrangements of theAustralian Consumer Law as gave in planned 2 of the Australian Competition and Consumer Protection Act 2010[1] through creation portrayals which were bogus and misdirecting alongside enjoying conduct which was beguiling and deluding. The lawful procedures have been started against the organization after the examination concerning the organization had been directed by the CHOICE. The examination found that the supposed organization was associated with Opaque publicizing techniques and dribble evaluating so as to improve its deals. The reason for the organization was to encourage the offer of tickets by individuals who couldn't go to a specific occasion which is a genuine rea son given the option to individuals to sell tickets for occasion they can't join in. Anyway in common sense the organization charging powerful expenses corresponding to such transactions[2]. 473 contacts have being gotten by the ACCC this year from Australian buyers as gave by the Deputy Chairman of ACCC Delia Rickard. It was given by the Australian buyer guard dog that they expect all site enjoying ticket exchanging to be forthright and clear as for the expenses accused by them along of the kind of tickets sold and the attribute of their business. It had been asserted by the ACCC that the organization didn't unveil unavoidable and critical charge appropriately according to the ticket value which included booking expense of 27.6% alongside the dealing with fee[3]. Segment 18(1) of theAustralian Consumer Law denies any individual or organization to enjoy activity which is deluding and tricky are probably going to misdirect or mislead as for exercises of exchange and Commerce[4]. The lawful procedures which have been started by the buyer controller depended on the tickets sold by the organization between first May and 26th June 2017. While promoting to sell the book of bon ehead for $135 the organization was including an extra charge of $42.50, the tickets for Ashes which were publicize to be sold for $ 330. 15 were included with an extra charge of 96.66 and the tickets for Cat Stevens which were promote to be sold for $450 were included with an extra expense of $29.95. This activity of the organization accounted to the infringement of Section 29 (1) (I) of the ACL which is according to bogus and deceiving portrayal. According to the arrangements of the area an individual isn't permitted to make a portrayal which is bogus and misdirecting to the customers in the exercises of exchange and business. This activity of the organization is additionally the contradiction of area 48 (1) (an) and (b) of the ACL corresponding to covered up price[5]. What's more purchasers were frequently coordinated to the site of the organization without their insight from Google search where the organization had employed top indexed lists for greatest Entertainment music and games. An ad was made by the organization that they are the approved affiliates which made numerous shoppers to buy tickets from them without having the information that the organization is really an affiliate. Charges were made by the purchaser guard dog that genuine the utilization of word official the organization made a portrayal in such ads that buyers would have the option to buy unique and authority tickets from them where really the organization was a stage to sell tickets which was sold by others. This was again the break of area 18(1) ACL comparable to beguiling and deceiving conduct just as segment 29 of ACL corresponding to bogus and misdirecting portrayal. The organization had made Statesman that just 1% of the tickets are staying to be sold so as to make criticalness among the buyers to buy the tickets immediately when the tickets would even now be gotten from different sources selling the tickets. This was a type of snare notice which is talked about in area 35 of the Australian buyer law[6]. As indicated by this area the dealers must not make a notice to build the interest of the item without having aim to give them. The activity can likewise be charged under Section 18(1) of the ACL according to deluding and tricky direct just as segment 29(1)(i) identified with bogus and deceiving portrayal in regards to price[7]. Cautioning had been given by the shopper security assemblages of WA, NSW and Queensland to the buyers from buying tickets from the site. A gave by the purchaser assurance group of WA individuals just discovered that they had bought tickets for an affiliate which they were not permitted to go into an occasion and needed t o repurchase the tickets or pass up a major opportunity the occasion. Corresponding to the body of evidence made by the ACCC against the organization it looks for orders, announcements, remedial distribution orders, monetary punishments alongside consistence projects and cost of legitimate procedures. The choice of the court comparable to this case can have different ramifications on the Australian ticketing industry. Important forces of the ACCC to guarantee consistence with the ACL The ACCC is the peak rivalry controller and purchaser assurance organization in Australia. It is a free government authority made by the Australian Competition and Consumer Act 2010 comparable to open intrigue. The point of the controller is to advance reasonable exchanging by organizations alongside furnishing assurance to the customers as for the activities of organizations. Wide scope of consistence devices are utilized by the controller to forestall infringement of the enactment including shopper and business instruction and cooperating with the partners. A scope of requirement cures have likewise been given by the enactment to the ACCC which incorporates results dependent on court choices and endeavors upheld by the courts. The Australian Consumer Law is relevant at the Commonwealth level and is thenational customer law of Australia; it is additionally pertinent in the states and domains. Four adaptable and incorporated procedures are utilized by the ACCC so as to accomplish con sistence target of the ACL. Right off the bat the ACCC upholds the law which incorporates explaining potential repudiations both in type of prosecution and authoritative way. Furthermore it instructs and advise purchasers and organizations as for the obligations and rights under the law so as to guarantee consistence. Thirdly the controller works intimately with organizations for the usage of such procedures through facilitated approaches. At long last market considers are attempted by the ACCC corresponding to developing rivalry or buyer issues to break down and deciding any disappointment according to the market and techniques to address them. Without the ACCC working it would not be anything but difficult to control the market The ACCC have had the option to determine different requests in support of its regarding the ACL. On account of Singtel Optus Pty Ltd v Australian Competition and Consumer Commission[8] boundless download plan had been offered by the litigant organization for all clients who might utilize their administrations. The arrangement anyway has a few constraints which included decrease of speed in the wake of downloading a specific measure of information. It was given by the court for this situation that the utilization of the word boundless was misdirecting and tricky. On account of TPG Internet Pty Ltd vAustralian Competition and Consumer Commission[9] the court had forced 2 million monetary punishments on the litigant for enjoying bogus and deluding promotion. The court found the utilization of word boundless and deluding and tricky. In this manner similarly the ACCC has the ability to force punishments on Viagogo for including the word official its site where it is just exchanging ticke ts. According to cost likewise the ACCC can get punishment against the Company. Punishments had been acquired by the ACCC through the court for comparable direct by an organization on account of ACCC v AirAsia Berhad Company[10] For this situation the court requested a monetary punishment of $200000. Suggestions It has been given by the contextual investigation that E-ticketing restricted has a comparable plan of action according to Viagogo. On the off chance that they keep on utilizing a similar plan of action they will welcome on the danger of being indicted by the ACCC. Right off the bat the organization needs to comprehend the idea according to deluding and beguiling behavior as gave by area 18 of the ACL. So as to work in understanding to law the organization needs to guarantee that the general impression which is made by the lead on the organization is bogus or incorrect or not. While the organization doesn't need to give data in all circumstances yet under explicit circumstance all applicable data must be given to the shoppers to guarantee consistence of segment 18 of the ACL. This data incorporates any detail which may almost certainly make a deceptive or beguiling impact on the buyer. The data ought to likewise be unveiled where it is sensibly expected by the customer that such data would be given. Therefore if an exchanged ticket isn't legitimate, the equivalent ought to be educated to the purchaser. Moreover making a promotion through a web crawler like Google ought to likewise not be tricky or deluding as given in segment 18 and area 29 of the Act. Corresponding to estimating the business needs to follow the rules as gave by segment 48 of the Act. The cost ought to in this manner be comprehensive with no concealed charge to be included last mentioned while buying the item as it would be against segment 29(1)(i) and 48(1)(a) and (b) of the ACL. Book index ACCC Takes Ticket Reseller Viagogo To Court (2017) Australian Competition and Consumer Commission

Sunday, July 12, 2020

How to Write a Winning ACCUPLACER Essay

How to Write a Winning ACCUPLACER EssayMost college students dread writing an ACCUPLACER essay, but there are a few things to keep in mind when writing this type of essay. As you think about your topic for the ACCUPLACER essay, keep in mind that this is a competition essay and you need to stand out from the rest. Some of the things to keep in mind are:Writing for a competition can be challenging, especially if you don't know the words to begin with. So, what are some topics for the ACCUPLACER essay? Yes, you can use keywords and choose the subject matter of your paper to help get you started on your topic. Here are some examples of topics that are likely to be successful for your competition essay:College students are always looking for creative ways to make money. What do you have to offer them? Well, you might have your own business or you could offer your services as a home-based writer for hire. You could also help make money by writing articles or creating unique advertising cam paigns.Another way to get noticed by college students is to help them create a branding campaign for their favorite team. This might mean providing them with a very detailed brochure they can use in conjunction with their advertisement for a game or a product. You can help them put together their brochure and then they can help you complete your task for them. Your role would be to simply read their ad and come up with ideas for their brochure.Writing for college students is easy because most students like to take an active role in learning. Many students like to read and respond to articles, so you might want to give them lots of news, opinions, and quotes about current events. This is just one way to help college students learn and absorb information.One way to get noticed by college students is to give them the tools they need to write articles. You could give them access to a blank article and a workbook to help them get started. You could also go as far as giving them free acce ss to templates that could help them achieve their goal.A number of college students love to read fiction and fantasy. You can give them free access to your eBook collection and provide them with a number of free software applications to use. The point is to make sure that your college students are able to access these resources and use them.When writing for college students, keep the topics you use simple and to the point. Many students have difficulty expressing themselves correctly, and it is important to remember that you need to reach out to them and make yourself available to them. These tips should help you get started on writing for college students.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Abraham Lincoln Delivered A Two Minute Proclamation Of Our...

Seven score and eleven years ago Abraham Lincoln delivered a two minute proclamation of our Nation s purpose. In just over two minutes President Lincoln clearly stated that slavery would no longer endure in the United States, and acknowledging the sacrifices of both the Confederacy and the Union. He was able to pivot the Civil War to mean more than a states rights conflict and the power of the federal government to be about equality and the â€Å"a new birth of freedom† (Baym). Lincoln s ability to speak with expressive style and enthusiasm lead to a victory for the Union. Lincoln s ability to use imagery and metaphors is what made his writing so persuasive. He was able to use this persuasiveness take a moral high ground for his cause and turn the tide of the Civil War to his favor. The ordinary backgrounds of influential people have always captured the minds of the American people as it speaks to our unique American culture of pulling yourself up by your boot straps and maki ng something of yourself, and Lincoln was no exception. Lincoln spent most of his life supporting his family and had little to none formal education. What Lincoln lost in the halls of the ivory towers he gained in practical experience working on farms and shops. He learned how to speak to everyday Americans. Lincoln was able to use his humble beginnings to connect with people by saying, â€Å"I am not ashamed to confess that twenty-five years ago I was a hired laborer, mauling rails, at work on a flat boat –Show MoreRelatedThe Legacy Of Abraham Lincoln1837 Words   |  8 Pages Honest Abe Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12th, 1809 in a log cabin in Kentucky. He was raised by poor parents and received less than a year of formal education. He was mainly self-educated by reading a lot of books on his own. Lincoln was known for being an opponent of slavery. He was the 16th president of the United States and served from March 1861 until he was assassinated in April of 1865. His main accomplishments include leading the United States through the Civil War and abolishingRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagesan Urban World †¢ Howard Spodek 53 3 Women in the Twentieth-Century World Bonnie G. Smith 83 4 The Gendering of Human Rights in the International Systems of Law in the Twentieth Century †¢ Jean H. Quataert 116 5 The Impact of the Two World Wars in a Century of Violence †¢ John H. Morrow Jr. 161 6 Locating the United States in Twentieth-Century World History †¢ Carl J. Guarneri 213 7 The Technopolitics of Cold War: Toward a Transregional Perspective †¢ Gabrielle Hecht

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

What Are The Limitations Of Delivering Vaccines - 2953 Words

What are the limitations of delivering vaccines nasally? Abstract Intranasal vaccinations are a developing area of research that can provide a promising alternative to the current strategy of intramuscular injections 1. In this review, the reasons for growing interest in intranasal administration are discussed, with those relating specifically to vaccinations being considered in more detail. In addition, the main limitations to nasal vaccines are reviewed, taking into account issues with the nasal mucosa and the vaccine formulation itself. Finally, nasal vaccinations that are currently available are discussed as well as the potential future developments in the field. Introduction Vaccinations are the cornerstone of preventing and†¦show more content†¦Since then, research in this area has been driven to overcome the issues with nasal vaccines and broaden their use as viable immunological tools. Interest in Intranasal Administration The nasal route has been extensively used for topical treatments in the past, for example, in the treatment of rhinitis with antihistamines. However, due to the appealing drug absorption potential of the nasal mucosa, intranasal administration for the systemic delivery of drugs has grown in popularity, allowing it to be considered as an alternative parenteral route of administration 11. The nasal mucosa consists of pseudostratified columnar epithelium that lies on top of a highly vascularised basement membrane. The columnar cell surface possesses microvilli which extensively aid systemic absorption through a greatly increased surface area 5. The highly vascularised mucosa plays a significant role in systemic absorption as blood flow, and subsequently the concentration gradient across the membrane, has a major influence in the absorption of drugs into the systemic circulation 1. These anatomical aspects, coupled with the nasal cavity’s thin and porous endothelial membrane prov ide an attractive option for a range of therapeutic applications 5. An example of such an application is the administration of fentanyl. Nasal delivery of fentanyl exhibits a rapid onset of action due to the advantageous nasal anatomy and provides a Tmax of approximately 7 minutes, aShow MoreRelatedCauses And Treatments Of Gene Therapy1740 Words   |  7 Pagesprevented through vaccines. However, there are still many other diseases that can’t be cured. Many diseases have drugs and medicine that can help relieve or regulate symptoms of different medical conditions and disorders, but they do not help fix the problem at its source. However, a form of genetic engineering may soon be able to treat these problems. Gene therapy has the potential to be able to treat and cure many diseases and disorders, but it does not come without limitations and downsides. GeneRead MoreThe Origin Of The Word Nano1593 Words   |  7 Pagesdirectly into an affected organ or tissue may be technically very difficult. Mostly, the affected areas do not differ much from the normal tissues in terms of temperature, local pH value and vascular permeability. The magnetic drug delivery also has limitations connected with blood flow rate in the target. Thus, the most natural and universal way to increase the affinity of a non-specific drug to the target site is by binding the drug with targeting moiety capable of specific recognition and binding atRead MoreHow Can Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning Used to Improve Hr Management Systems and Practices and Build Intellectual Capital and Competitive Advantage for the Future.2914 Words   |  12 Pages[pic] BACHELOR OF COMMERCE BUS 378 – KNOWLEDGE AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1. 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B) developing health education/promotion programs for the people they serve and evaluating health education/promotion programs. C) assessing the needs and diagnosingRead MoreQuit Smoking Case Study Essay4989 Words   |  20 PagesThe task force also advises clinicians to ask all pregnant women, regardless of age, about tobacco use. Those who currently smoke should receive pregnancy-tailored counseling supplemented with self-help materials. Understanding the benefits and limitations of the available medications provides an important foundation for such a successful smoking cessation  program. Assess smoking history, level of addiction, and the health  status  of the patient. See the image below. After the assessment, interveneRead MoreSubstance Abuse Throughout Nursing : An Overview2377 Words   |  10 Pagesa weight which few but the brave can carry. To remove one’s self from the comfort of partiality and to place themselves into the hands of a sick patient without restraint is a beautiful ideal. It may seem flamboyant phrasing, but that symbolizes what a nurse is; becoming a servant to the needs of others before their own, someone who never stops choosing it. But sometimes the system fails even the strongest of soldiers; leading them down a dark and slippery path which holds the deceitful promiseRead More We Need Embryonic Stem Cell Research Essay2259 Words   |  10 Pagesremoved from embryos on or before that date (NIH Stem Cell Registry). So, since George W. Bush Administrations policy on Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research was added. The policy toward s embryonic stem cell research has placed extremely serious limitations on embryonic stem cell research in this country (American Thoracic Society Documents 1043-1045). Although it was estimated that 60-80 cell lines would be available, in fact only 22 cell lines produced before the policy announcement are actuallyRead MoreThe American Travel Health Nurses Association3195 Words   |  13 PagesTravel Health Nurses Association, n.d.). One of ATHNA?s main objectives is the development of professional competencies for travel medicine through increased access to educational opportunities. However, at this time ATHNA does not have a means of delivering educational content to the majority of its members due to the organization?s large geographic spread and scheduling difficulties. Goal To further the educational objectives of ATHNA, the goal of this thesis is to provide ATHNA?s Board with a

Golf, Outdoor Game In Which Individual Players Use Specially Designed Essay Example For Students

Golf, Outdoor Game In Which Individual Players Use Specially Designed Essay clubs to propel a small, hard ball over a field of play known as a course or links. The object of the game is to advance the ball around the course using as few strokes as possible. The Golf Course A golf course is divided into 18 sections, called holes. The standard course is about 6500 to 7000 yd (about 5900 to 6400 m). The individual holes may vary in length from 100 to 600 yd (about 90 to 550 m). Each hole has at one end a starting point known as a tee and, imbedded in the ground at the other end and marked by a flag, a cup or cylindrical container (also called a hole) into which the ball must be propelled in order to complete play at each hole. The cup is usually made of metal or plastic, 4.2 in (10.8 cm) in diameter, and at least 4 in (10 cm) deep. Play begins at the first tee, a level area of turf, generally raised slightly above the surrounding terrain. From here each player tries to drive the ball onto the fairway, or main part of the golf course, a carefully tended strip of land, 30 to 100 yd (about 27 to 90 m) wide, on which the grass has been cut to provide a good playing surface for the ball. On either side of the fairway is the rough, which consists of areas covered with long grass, bushes, or trees, and which sometimes contains sandy, rough, or marshy areas that compel golfers to use additional skill and judgment in playing their shots. In the absence of such natural obstacles, artificial hazards may be constructed. These include bunkers, also known as traps, which are hollows dug in the earth and usually filled with loose sand; mounds and other earthen embankments; and water hazards, such as ditches, creeks, ponds, or lakes. At the far end of the fairway from the tee is the putting green, an area of closely cropped gr ass surrounding the hole or cup. The smooth surface of the putting green is designed to facilitate the progress of the ball into the cup after the ball has been given a tap or gentle stroke known as a putt. Golf Strokes and Golf Clubs In addition to the putt, the specialized stroke used on the green, two main types of shots are used in playing each hole: the drive, which is a long shot from the tee onto the fairway; and the approach shot, which is the shot used to hit the ball onto the green. Both types demand great accuracy. Shots of various lengths are played with different clubs, according to the distance to be covered and the lie (position) of the ball. A standard set of 14 golf clubs (the maximum that may be carried in tournament play), is divided into two main types: those known as woods, with heads made of wood or metal; and those known as irons, with heads made of forged steel, usually chromium plated. The shafts of both types usually are made of metal and sometimes of fiberglass. Formerly, each club was known by a distinctive name, but today most are designated by numbers. The woods are customarily numbered 1 through 5, the irons 1 through 9. The putter, an iron, has retained i ts name. In addition to the numbered irons are the utility clubs, including the sand wedge and the pitching wedge, used on medium-range shots to loft the ball high into the air and limit its roll to a short distance after landing. The clubs are variously used in achieving distance, height, or accurate placement of the ball; the angle at which the striking surface is set on the shaft of the club determines the trajectory of the ball. For making drives and distance shots on the fairway, the woods (No. 1, or driver; No. 2; No. 3; No. 4; and No. 5) and the so-called long irons (No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3) are used. For the initial drive of each hole, the ball is teed up-that is, placed on a small wooden, rubber, or plastic peg, known as a tee, which the players carry with them. This lifts the ball at least 0.5 in (1.3 cm) off the ground, allowing the head of the club to strike the ball with maximum force. For long, low shots on the fairway, the No. 2 wood is used, and for long, high shots the No. 3, No. 4, and No. 5 woods are employed. Other approach shots to the green, generally of a shorter range, are played with irons. For even shorter approaches, known as chip shots, the same irons are used but with a shorter swi ng. The putter normally is used only on the green or the apron (a fringe of less smooth grass) of the green. Forms of Competition Two basic forms of competition exist in golf: match play and medal play (also known as stroke play). In match play the player (or, if more than one player, the team) taking the fewer number of strokes to sink the ball into any particular hole-called holing out-is the winner of the hole; the contest is won by the player or team winning the most holes. If each player or team takes the same number of strokes on any hole, the hole is said to be halved (tied). A final score of 9 and 8 in match play means that the winner was 9 holes ahead with only 8 left to play, sufficient to clinch victory in the match. When the match goes tied until the last hole, the winning score is 1 up. Is Justice Truly Blind EssayRules and Regulations The rules of play for golf are numerous and complex. They include a code of etiquette for behavior on the green. The game was originally played with a ball made of feathers tightly packed in a leather cover. About 1850 a ball made of gutta-percha came into use. Gutta-percha is a milky liquid, derived principally from Malaysian trees, that hardens after being boiled and cooled. About 1901 a ball with a rubber core enclosed in gutta-percha, similar to the ball in use today, was developed. The pitted surface of modern golf balls acts to stabilize flight. Golf balls must have a diameter of no less than 1.68 in (4.27 cm) and weigh not more than 1.62 oz (45.93 g). Governing Bodies The organizations that establish golf rules for the world are the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews and the United States Golf Association (USGA), founded in 1894 and located in Far Hills, New Jersey. Before 1913, golf in the United States was played chiefly by people of wealth. In 1913, however, after a former caddie from the United States named Francis Ouimet won a victory over two outstanding British professionals in the U.S. open championship tournament (open to amateurs and professionals), golf came to the attention of the American public in general. The Professional Golfers Association of America (PGA) was organized in 1916, and annual tournaments were started during the same year. The PGA is headquartered in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida. Currently, there are more than 23,000 members of the PGA, most of whom assist amateur players as club or resort instructors; and each year several hundred professional players tour the country competing in major tourna ments. The Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA), headquartered in Daytona Beach, Florida, numbers more than 800 club instructors, along with several hundred tournament players. Major professional tours include the PGA (for men), the LPGA (for women), and the Seniors tour (for men over the age of 50). Tournaments Each year many golf tournaments take place. The most important professional tournaments for men are the Masters, the U.S. Open, the British Open, and the PGA Championship. Collectively these four events form the grand slam of golf. Until 1960 the grand slam was considered to be the U.S. Open, the British Open, the U.S. Amateur, and the British Amateur, but with the increasing importance of professional golf in the mid-20th century, the Masters and the PGA Championship gained preeminence over the two amateur tournaments. However, the U.S. and British amateurs remain important events for nonprofessionals. For women the four professional tournaments forming the grand slam are the LPGA Championship, the U.S. Womens Open, the du Maurier Classic, and the Dinah Shore. The most important amateur events for women are the U.S. Womens Amateur and the British Womens Amateur Championship. International matches are also played. The Walker Cup (for men) and the Curtis Cup (for women) are contests between amateur golfers from the United States and Great Britain. The Ryder Cup (for men) and the Solheim Cup (for women) are contests between professional golfers from the United States and the rest of the world. (Before 1979 the Ryder Cup was contested only between American and British teams.) World competition tournaments for men also include the Eisenhower Cup for amateurs, the World Cup for professionals, and the Shun Nomura Trophy and the Francis H. I. Brown International Team Match Trophy for seniors. World competition tournaments for women also include the Espirito Santo Trophy. The most famous feat in the history of golf was achieved by the American amateur player Bobby Jones, who in 1930 achieved the grand slam of golf at the time by winning the British Open, the British Amateur, the U.S. Open, and the U.S. Amateur. No other player has ever won the grand slam in golf. One of the greatest women players of all time was Babe Didrikson Zaharias, an American who competed both as an amateur and as a professional. Other outstanding golfers include American players Walter Hagen, Gene Sarazen, Sam Snead, Ben Hogan, Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus, Nancy Lopez, Kathy Whitworth, Tom Watson, JoAnne Carner, Pat Bradley, Lee Trevino, Patty Sheehan, Patty Berg, and Mickey Wright; British players Harry Vardon and Nick Faldo; Australian player Greg Norman; South African players Nick Price and Gary Player; and Spanish player Severiano Ballesteros. Other Forms of Golf Variations of golf, many of which can be played at night under lights, are developed from time to time: Miniature golf, a putting game on fancifully designed courses, became popular in the 1930s. Special putting greens and driving ranges combine practice and recreation. Pitch and putt is a shorter version of the standard game.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Visual Impairment Essays (659 words) - Ophthalmology, Visual System

Visual Impairment People categorized as visually impaired range from individuals with mild visual losses to those with low vision to those who are totally blind" (Winzer,370). Vision impairments does not necessarily mean a total loss of sight. Some visually impaired person can detect light, others can see shapes and forms, and others can see nothing at all. Generally, many different problems that interfere the retina to form image or the transmission of retinal images to the brain can cause blindness or vision impairment. It can be heredity or caused by disease or damage after birth. In some cases a specific reason cannot be determined. There are four major types of vision impairments. The first type are refractive errors. It is cause by the change of shape or size of the eyeball, conera or the lens. Myopia (short-sighted) and hyperopia (long-sighted) are two common examples. People with myopia or hyperopia cannot focus image accurately on the retina. Another example is astigmatism, it is caused by the abnormal curve shape of the cornera or the lens. And it can cause distorted or blurred vision. The second type are ocular motor problems. It is caused by irregular movement of the ocular muscles that control the movement of the eyeballs. It leads to the inability for the eyes to control focusing objects. Strasbismus is an example. This condition effects about 2 percent (2 out of 100) of all young children. Strabismus is a lack of coordinated muscle movement or focusing ability between the eyes, causing the eyes to point in different directions. One or both eyes may turn inward (crossed eyes) or outward ("walleye"). The eyes, the brain area that controls vision, and the muscles attached to the eyeball are involved. It result in the child that looks in certain directions, double vision (sometimes), vision in one eye only, with loss of depth perception. Strabismus can affect both sexes, all ages, but it usually begins during early childhood, frequently before age 5. If not corrected through therapy or surgery, crossed eyes can result in permanent loss of vision. The third type are eye diseases, it is "caused by damage or disease before or after birth to one or more structure of the eye" (Winzer, 374). One off the most common causes of blindness is cataracts. Cataracts are a clouding of the lens of the eye that keeps light from reaching retina. Resulting in badly blurred vision, double vision, sensitivity to bright lights and change in color vision. One eye is often more seriously affected than the other. It may be cause by chemical change in the lens. The exact cause is still unknown, but there are many factors that can accelerate cataract formation.These include an injury, either from a blow to the head or direct eye injury, other diseases exposure to radiation of any kind (x-rays, microwaves, or infrared rays) long-term use of a corticosteroid drug. A child may be born with cataracts or develop them at an early age. These cataracts, called congenital cataracts, may be caused by a genetic disorder such as down syndrome or from a condition the mother had during pregnancy such as German measles. The fourth type are other defects such as color blindness, photophobia or albinism. Color blindness is a inherited vision disorder which is often found in male rather than in female. Persons who have color blindness do not have one of the three cone cells which are responsible for receiving either blue, green and red. Therefore, people with color blindness are likely to confuse with red and green. But the condition is not serious enough to connect with visual impairments. Albinism is a hereditary disease. It must be pass thorugh from both parents, "each of whom either has albinism or is a carrier of that trait. Albinism affects the production of melanin"(Winzer,379). A lack of melanin in the retina, iris and choroid will cause the pupil to become in deep red color, the iris will become in grey, light blue or pink. A person with albinism will also suffer from photophobia, which is the extreme sensitivity to light. Bright light may decreases the person's visual acuity and may blinds the persons with albinism.